1. IDP’s face danger returning home


A new study warns of the dangers of the absence of the State in areas where populations have started to return in Cabo Delgado, requiring more intervention and investment in basic infrastructure. According to the study, launched on 8 February in Maputo, the State is absent from the places where people who are victims of armed violence return, in some districts of the provinces of Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula, in northern Mozambique. The investigation also indicates that in these areas, where populations are now returning, there are serious risks of terrorists taking advantage of the absence of the State. According to the executive director of the Institute for Social and Economic Development (IDES), Fidel Terenciano, at the moment, terrorists are developing disinformation campaigns, to gain sympathy from the population. https://avoz.org/estado-ausente-nas-zonas-de-retorno-dos-deslocados-em-cabo-delgado/



2. Rwandan refugees in Mozambique view consolidation of Kagame’s influence with fear


One of the legacies that the current President of the Republic will to leave is the mortgage of the sovereignty of Mozambique. It is easy to see that the intervention Rwandan military in Cabo Delgado has very high costs, as it involves a partial mortgage of the sovereignty of the Mozambican state. The Rwandan troops are responsible for security of the perimeter of the greatest strategic economic assets of Mozambique, namely the projects natural gas in Palma. Rwanda also set up a private security company, ISCO, which will replace the Rwandan troops protecting projects of LNG. The security of future projects with the potential to transform the economic structure of Mozambique will be in the hands of regime in Rwanda, which is to say that part of the sovereignty of the Mozambican state will be controlled from Kigali. In addition to the security business, Rwanda is profiling companies to carry out works of civil construction and providing goods and services in LNG projects. One example is RADAR SCAPE, a Rwandan construction company civilian that won an $800,000 contract to rehabilitate 76 houses in the resettlement village of Quitupo, where IDP families live.

But it is not only in the business area that the Rwanda is consolidating its interests in Mozambique. This Tuesday (February 28th), the Council of Ministers approved two motions for resolutions that open the doors for the Kigali regime to persecute their exiled political opponents in Mozambique. Citizens who fled Rwanda due to persecution and live in Mozambique with refugee status, recognized by the Mozambican state. The same State that today is legalizing their extradition to Rwanda.

These two proposals are of more interest to Rwanda than Mozambique. The Minister of State responsible for Constitutional and Legal Affairs in the Ministry of Justice, Soline Nyirahabimana, praised the extradition agreement signed in Kigali in June 2022 with his Mozambican counterpart Helena Kida, stating that the document reveals an increase security for states. “These agreements mean that Rwanda and Mozambique are now safe from criminals, which means that our citizens will feel safe”.

These agreements show that the Government of Mozambique is subservient to the wishes of the Rwandan regime. Gradually, the Government of Philip Nyusi is turning Mozambique into a satellite state of Rwanda: in addition to ceding part of its sovereignty in the field of security, the State will assist Rwanda in the identification, pursuit, detention and extradition of Rwandan citizens who live in Mozambique and are wanted by the Kagame regime. Under the Constitution of the Republic, the laws and international conventions to which Mozambique is a signatory, the State has an obligation to grant asylum to all individuals that are persecuted because of their opinions. Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 14, paragraph 1), “every human being who is a victim of persecution has the right to seek and benefit from asylum in other countries”.

The Mozambican government had already facilitated kidnappings and extrajudicial extraditions of Rwandans targeted by the Kigali regime. On September 13, 2021, Revocant Karemangingo, Vice President of Rwandan Refugee Association in Mozambique (ARRM), was shot dead near his residence, in Bairro Liberdade, Matola City. He was a merchant and employed more than 200 Mozambicans. The case was not investigated by the Mozambican authorities.

The Rwandan community in Mozambique denounced the existence of a list of 20 refugees identified as targets to be eliminated by the death squads of the Government of Rwanda. The list was compiled by the Kigali regime and includes refugees who are in Mozambique and in other African countries.

A Rwandan refugee who identified himself by the name of Alex, aged 40, said that he arrived in Mozambique in December 2003, after passing through Congo, Malawi and Tanzania. Alex said he was amazed when he learned that his name was on that list. “I did nothing to be on this list. There is nothing that I did against my country. Even if I had committed a crime, the correct thing would be to submit me to a trial. “https://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/rwanda-mozambique-sign-agreements-



3. Renewed insurgent attacks in Mocimboa da Praia


At least two people, a man and a woman, sustained leg and arm injuries after they were hit by bullets,

during an attack by insurgents on 6 March 2023 in Mitope village, in the Mocímboa da Praia district of

Cabo Delgado province. There are reports of deaths, but information is scarce.

According to sources, the attack was around 13:<> p.m. last Saturday. On their arrival, a number of ten

insurgents said they had no interest in killing, so people should not move, but the two victims, due to fear,

wanted to flee and were hit during the escape. The insurgents fled the battalion of the Local Forces. The

Rwandan Defense Forces (FDR) had also been activated for Mitope village that is approximately 50 kilometers from the village of Mocímboa da Praia. Terrorists return to injure civilians in the district of

Mocímboa da Praia (integritymagazine.co.mz)



4. Rwandan private security company to operate in Cabo Delgado


The President of Rwanda confirmed this week the presence of a Rwandan security company in Cabo Delgado. It will provide services in the natural gas industry, whose main project – Mozambique LNG should resume in the second half of this year. “They were hired to do a job that both the Rwandan Police and Army and of Mozambique, working together, have no mandate to execute. I don’t know who hired them. They may have been hired by Government,” said Paul Kagame, in an interview with journalists in Kigali.

The private security company is called ISCO and was created by Rwandan Macefield Ventures, described as the international arm of Crystal Ventures, linked to the Patriotic Front of Rwanda, the party of Paul Kagame. ISCO is made up mostly of former members of the Rwandan police and military. In the future, the Rwandan military contingent in Cabo Delgado may be replaced by private security companies dominated by the Kigali regime, particularly in the project area of LNG.

The entry of Rwandan companies in the gas business of Cabo Delgado indicates the contents (not revealed until now) of the various contracts signed between the Governments of Mozambique and Rwanda. On September 25, 2021, Filipe Nyusi announced that, as part of Paul Kagame’s visit, he had made “important decisions” with his Rwandan counterpart, but did not specify what had been decided. On the first day of Paul Kagame’s visit to Cabo Delgado in September 2021, there was signature of agreements between the delegations of the two States, but the contents were never revealed. In March of last year, Africa Intelligence reported that the Rwandan construction company NPD is on the list of companies that were to compete for preparatory work on the Mozambique LNG project, led by the French company TotalEnergies. Described as being close to the Rwandan President, NPD is one of the largest construction companies in Rwanda.

In the interview broadcast by TVM, the President of Rwanda reiterated that the military intervention in Mozambique is financed exclusively by its Government. In December, the European Union approved 20 million euros to support Rwandan troops in Cabo Delgado. However, the amount has not yet been disbursed and the European Union demands that the Paul Kagame regime must stop promoting instability in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).



5. Mega dam proposed for Zambezi River threatens livelihoods and the environment


Cornélio Pacate has worked as a farmer all his life in the village of Chacucoma, along the banks of the lower

Zambezi river in rural Mozambique. Today, he fears having to leave his homeland to give way to a $4.5

billion mega dam. An estimated 1,400 families could be displaced by the Mphanda Nkuwa hydropower

project due to be built across the river in what would be Southern Africa’s largest dam. Another 200,000

people could be affected downstream.

The government of Mozambique has touted the 1.5GW Mphanda Nkuwa dam, in the district of Marara,

Tete province, as key for the southern African nation to address energy poverty and reach its goal of universal energy access by 2030. But environmental groups say the dam threatens to negatively impact

local communities and ecosystems. Local people told Climate Home News they haven’t been consulted on

the project and have only heard about it through non-official sources. Moreover, climate impacts and

increasingly erratic rainfall risk making the project unviable, scientists say.

In spite of outcry from local people and green groups, both the World Bank, through its private investment

arm the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the African Development Bank (AfDB) are supporting

the project and pushing for the dam’s construction.

In May last year, the two development institutions acted as advisors to develop the dam, hoping it will

become “attractive to reputable developers, financiers and investors to ensure competitive and least -cost

power for Mozambique and the region,” AfDB said in a statement.

Yet, studies have shown that large-scale hydro may not be as clean as previously thought. While

considered a source of low-carbon energy, large hydropower projects emit significant amounts of

methane, a greenhouse gas 80 times more potent than carbon dioxide. The social impact of large hydro

projects has also been criticised for violating indigenous peoples and local communities’ rights, and

increasing the risk of over-topping and flooding for people living downstream.

The dam will be built in the lower part of the Zambezi river basin, around 60 km downstream from the

existent giant hydropower plant at Cahora Bassa, known as HCB. Under current plans, the project is

expected to reach financial close in 2024 with commissioning to start in 2031.

The Mphanda Nkuwa project is poised to result in the eviction of farming communities from their land. But

people in the affected areas told Climate Home that nobody has yet come to inform them about the plans

or seek their consent. “No one has ever sat down with us to explain about the project or about our rights,”

said Horlando Elias Djaquissone, who has lived in the Chacucoma community for 14 years.

The community of Chirodzi-Nsanangue, in Marara district, lies at the heart of the project area. Fisherfolk,

artisanal miners and farmers who “rely on the river and its banks for everything” have the most to lose,

says a report sent to the EU and EIB by environmental group Justiça Ambiental (JA), which is part of Friends

of the Earth International. The group estimates that more than 1,400 families living in the region could be

displaced, and a further 200,000 people living in the delta area would be affected.

Farmers in the communities of Chacucoma and Nhahacamba live off growing maize on small-holding plots,

fishing and artisanal mining, as well as raising cattle, goats and chicken. But the province of Tete does not

have plenty of arable land to resettle the communities of mostly subsistence farmers, the report highlights.

Cornélio Juliano Pacate, of Chacucoma, who sells fish and produces crop all year round, fears he might lo se

his livelihood if he is resettled. “I don’t want to leave because there might be problems where [the

government] will relocate me to,” he told Climate Home.

A preliminary assessment carried out by TMP Systems, a development consultancy agency, suggested the

project could see an increased cost of $1.3bn due to resettlements negotiations and social disputes around

displacements. The country already produces enough energy to meet domestic needs, but most of Mozambique’s

population cannot access electricity, said Anabela Lemos, director of Justiça Ambiental. “The vast majority

of Mozambique’s energy output is exported to South Africa at prices that are unfavourable to us, and what

we import back is largely used by industry rather than by people,” Lemos said. Because Mozambique’s

population is widely dispersed and two thirds of its population live in rural areas, “it makes no sense to

invest in transmission lines that cover long distances,” Lemos argued. Instead, the government

should “promote local solutions adjusted to the potential of each place,” she said.

The Zambezi delta is under severe threat of droughts worsened by climate change, which researchers think

could grow even worse after accommodating another large dam in its basin. Along its course, the river is

already powering around 5GW through the Kariba dam, between Zambia and Zimbabwe, and

Mozambique’s HCB, also in Tete province. As the impacts of climate change become more pronounced,

there is a serious risk that the lower Zambezi will not be able to provide the best conditions for the 1.5GW

hydro plant to function. A 2012 study by advocacy group International Rivers found that climate change

could reduce water availability in the basin and risk hydropower production. According to the study,

rainfall levels could decrease up to 15% over the next century. Meanwhile, rising temperatures could lead

to more evaporation, said Miguel Uamasse, researcher at Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, who

has studied the impact of climate change in Mozambique’s hydro landscape for years. Less rainfall coupled

with increased evaporation “will result in lower river flow and lower revenue from energy production,”

Uamasse said.

Losses on the local ecosystems and on the Zambezi delta will be “irreversible,” Lemos added, explaining

that the dam will alter and disrupt sediments in the river. This will affect the “productivity of the

floodplains, the soil and the health of the vegetation.”



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